Biomins II is formulated for individuals at high risk for mineral deficiencies, but who do not require copper or iron. Mineral deficiencies are frequently found in the elderly, in children and teenagers, and in individuals with eating disorders. Taking certain medications can also result in mineral deficiencies. In formulating Biomins II, Thorne concluded that dicalcium malate and dimagnesium malate (two molecules of each mineral bound to one molecule of malate) are the forms of calcium and magnesium to optimize both absorption and concentration (how much fits in a capsule).* Albion® Laboratories – an innovator of mineral chelates since 1956 – supplies the majority of the minerals in our BioMins II formula. We believe Albion's glycinate chelates – zinc, chromium, manganese, molybdenum, and boron – exhibit excellent absorption and tolerability.